vickers hardness test

ZHV30/zwickiLine hardness testing machine The ZHV30/zwicki hardness tester is an economical solution for automatic series and hardness … Reason for the decrease in microhardness (VHN) with time may be the hygrothermal environment. Static indentation tests are one way to determine hardness. The Vickers hardness test method was developed by Robert L. Smith and George E. Sandland at Vickers Ltd as an alternative to the Brinell method to measure the hardness of materials. The indenter is subjected to a load of 1 to 100 kgf. Different materials require a different amount of force to form an indent. The dynamic or rebound hardness tests have also been used commonly as a technique for hardness measurements, in which an object of standard mass and dimension is bounded from the test surface and its height of rebound becomes a measure of hardness. In recent years, surface coatings have been widely used in a variety of products and the need to evaluate their mechanical properties is rapidly increasing. The observations in this study indicate that collagen molecules are flexible molecules, rather than rigid rod, in the neutral pH solution. Design by Rivmedia. 5. Fully automatic hardness testing machine with test loads from 0,001 to 100 kgf. RELATED HARDNESS TESTING SPECIFICATIONS. Testing at the micro- or nanoscale: (A) microhardness testing using a Vickers indenter, (B) indenter tip for nanoindentation, and (C) single molecule testing using optical tweezers. The Vickers hardness test uses a 136° pyramidal diamond indenter that forms a square indent. ). The area of the indent is determined using the known geometry of the indenter tip. Grattan, in Measurement, 2019. Schematic illustration of an interfacial indentation test by use of a Vickers indenter [12], where 1-coating; 2-substrate; 3-indenter; 4 interfacial crack. The force is maintained for a specific dwell time, normally 10 – 15 seconds. Fracture surface morphologies in understanding of composite structural behavior, Structural Health Monitoring of Biocomposites, Fibre-Reinforced Composites and Hybrid Composites, which are measured. This is an online calculator to find the vickers hardness (HV) of … 10 µN ∼ 10 mN) or micro-indentation testing, multi-cyclic indentation tests are always conducted for selected, specific thin films [43,44]. It is therefore probable that the steel was supplied in the soft condition and was not heat treated after machining. It is a standard test method recommended by ASTM E384, ISO […] It is observed that the core thickness does not affect so much in change in microhardness (VHN) with respect to time. 3. The plastic deformation of metallic material was assumed to comply with the Johnson–Cook plasticity model. This category only includes cookies that ensures basic functionalities and security features of the website. The Vickers hardness test is suitable for soft to very hard materials and especially for thin sheets! 5 shows an indentation on sintered dense hydroxyapatite by a Vickers indenter (Wang M., 1992, previously unpublished data). Wang et al. By clicking “Accept”, you consent to the use of ALL the cookies. 2(a) and on cross-sectional indentation on the substrate near to the interface shown in Fig. Xiaomei Chen, ... Kenneth T.V. For practical and calibration reasons, each of these methods is divided into a range of scales, defined by a combination of applied load and indenter geometry. It uses an even smaller diamond indenter than a Rockwell machine. Anon (1898), Vickers, Sons and Maxim Limited: Their Works and Manufactures, "Engineering", London; Evans, Harold. The bimaterial constant ε is defined as. The report in reference [13] recommends quantitively evaluating the adhesion of thermal spray ceramic coatings using interfacial toughness KIFC. The loads for Micro Vickers or Knoop hardness testing methods are typically very low, ranging from a few grams to 2 kgs. (2) indicates that the shorter the crack length, the higher the coating interfacial toughness or the adhesion strength. The Vickers hardness test is a test performed to measure the hardness of materials, specifically thin sections and small parts. The material parameters required for these calculations were taken from the literatures (4)-(7). The highly nonlinear force-extension curves for type II collagen molecules are thus obtained. Vickers: Against the Odds 1956–1977 (1978) Grant, Jonathan A. And also, it was assumed that 90% of the plastic strain energy dissipates into heat. Other examples of surface inspection and morphology analysis techniques being employed are 3D images raster-scanned by SEM, TEM [22,23], and AFM [24,25]. There are three principal standard test methods for expressing the relationship between hardness and the size of the impression, these being Brinell, Vickers, and Rockwell. Suk et al. The International Organisation for Standardization (ISO) has specified this approach for coating testing, especially for nano- and micro-scale thin films, which include metallic, non-metallic and organic materials [5]. The testing procedure also takes more time than the Rockwell Test. The full load is normally applied for 10 to 15 seconds. The indentation methods have also been applied in composites [35] and polymer materials [36]. This test consists of applying a force (also called a “load”) on the test material using a diamond indenter, to obtain an indentation. 0.5 kPa before impingement. The Vickers test can be used for all metals and has one of the widest scales among hardness tests. Indentation-based stress, adhesion energy or other quantitative and semi-quantitative analysis models have been implemented for determining the adhesion and interfacial toughness of several thin coatings [15,16], especially by using finite element modelling (FEM) [17,18,19]. In order to measure the true hardness of coatings, it is important to find the critical testing condition under which the substrate does not influence the measurement. Various indenter tip geometries such as circular cone (Rockwell) [6], triangular pyramid (Berkovich) [7], rhombic pyramid (Knoop) [8] and right pyramid (Vickers) [9] have been implemented historically. 4B). The indenter is pressed into the sample by an accurately controlled test force. Vickers hardness testing is generally applied to metals but can be conducted on other materials such as ceramics. But opting out of some of these cookies may affect your browsing experience. Microhardness testing, unlike macro-hardness testing, applies loads between the range of L < 2 N and penetrations h > 0.2 µm. Inquiry! Brinell Test . The Vickers hardness test method can be also used as a microhardness test method, which is mostly used for small parts, thin sections, or case depth work. the full load is applied for 10 to 15 seconds. Brinell Test . Conform to all hardness standards including ASTM and ISO. However, we have not yet known in detail what occurs at the interface between the object or hammer and the test surface. The Brinell / Knoop / Vickers hardness tester series Qness 60 EVO takes micro hardness testing to a whole new level: The high-end laboratory devices of the latest generation combine the best of both worlds – hardness testing and microscopy without compromise and with maximum operating convenience. Vickers hardness number (VHN) can be found directly from the Vickers hardness testing machine. Initially designed as a substitute for the Brinell method, which had a large indenter and the possibility of damage to the test-piece, and also the Rockwell method which used multiple test forces; the Vickers Hardness test is easy to use and offers a number of advantages over other hardness tests, such as: 1. the indenter used is small in size, which Hardness Testing Vickers Hardness Test The Vickers hardness test method consists of indenting the test material with a diamond indenter, in the form of a pyramid with a square base and an angle of 136 degrees between opposite faces subjected to a test force of between 1gf and 100kgf. Scanning ESCA Microprobe Quantum 2000 (ULVAC-PHI, Inc., Japan) was used as the XPS equipment. In reference [12] of his work, the adhesion is classified by the critical indentation force: the greater the critical indentation force, the higher the adhesion strength. 4. The coating surface indentation and the cross-sectional indentation are more effective for adhesion strength measurement of ductile films on brittle substrates. We use cookies on our website to give you the most relevant experience by remembering your preferences and repeat visits. Typically, loads vary from 1 to 100 kgf. Based on the Vickers hardness testing and the attached/separated optical microscope, the interfacial indentation test activities reported by Yamazaki et al. For the Vickers hardness test, a square base pyramid with a opening angle of 136° is used as the indenter (opening angle = angle between two opposite surfaces of the pyramid). It is observed from the graphs that the microhardness (VHN) is constantly decreasing with time. XPS analysis was selected to evaluate the removal energy of natural oxide on each substrate material. Just tell us the exact sizes, specifications or styles, we can make the products as you want. (Micro-indentation tests typically use loads of up to 200 gf, while macro-indentation tests use loads up to 1000 gf). Vickers hardness test; Vickers machine gun; Citations Further reading. A comprehensive variety of scales and test blocks are available to meet the wide ranges and hardness scales associated with Rockwell®, Brinell, Knoop and Vickers testing. 1); coating surface indentation in the direction normal to the coating and substrate, shown in Fig. In this test, a pyramid-shaped diamond indenter with apical angles of 130° and 172°30? Vickers hardness test. The unit of hardness given by the test is known as the Vickers Pyramid Number ( HV ) or Diamond Pyramid Hardness ( DPH ). 5. 3. Mechanical characterization of single molecules or biological cells is very challenging, and cellular and molecular biomechanics have made significant advances over the past two decades due to the invention and innovation in testing techniques and testing equipment. mm.). The Vickers hardness test is known as a ‘microhardness’ test, which means it is typically used for small or thin material sections. Macro Vickers, Vickers, Knoop (microhardness) Barcol, Durometer, Shore (on polymers and composites) The primary purpose of hardness testing is to determine if a material is suitable for a given application, or the particular treatment to which the material has been subjected. Vickers Hardness testing Home / Vickers Hardness testing. For practical and calibration reasons, each of these methods is divided into a range of scales, defined by a combination of applied load and indenter geometry. After the dwell time is complete, the indenter is removed leaving an indent in the sample that appears square shaped on the surface. The constant is a function of the indenter geometry and the units of force and diagonal. The best part of the Vickers hardness test is that this test is applicable to all the metals that exist in the universe. In the UK and Europe, it is most common to use Vickers hardness testing (Figure 9.14). The particle velocity was controlled by the He gas pressure and calculated from the time gap between two continuous wave lasers placed at 60 mm interval obstructed by the particle. They have demonstrated that nanoindentation is a powerful tool in determining mechanical properties of a very thin layer of bioceramic on biomaterials surface. The X-ray spot size was 100 μm, and the accelerating voltage for Ar ions and the sputtering area were fixed at 2 kV and square 2 mm on a side, respectively. The molecule is stretched by moving the two-bead complex away from the optical trapping center at a constant rate through the piezo-stage. 3.1.3 Vickers Hardness Test The Vickers hardness test method consists of indenting the test material with a diamond indenter, in the form of a right pyramid with a square base and an angle of 136 degrees between opposite faces subjected to a load of 1 to 100 kgf. By using this technique, we may evaluate the mechanical properties of surface coating materials we cannot evaluate with static indentation tests. The testing, measurement, and analysis of the hardness of a metal is critical. [1] The Vickers test is often easier to use than other hardness tests since the required calculations are independent of the size of the indenter, and the indenter can be used for all materials irrespective of hardness. Figure 12.3. Hardness tester HRC HRB. With Vickers hardness and Knoop hardness testing capabilities. The Vickers hardness (HV) results from the quotient of the applied test force (F in newtons N) and the surface area of the residual indent on the specimen (see formula below). Micro-indentation hardness testing, also referred to as ‘microhardness’ testing, is commonly used to measure hardness in very local areas, e.g. Making a rhombohedra [10,11] have led to the release of two ISO standards in the adhesion of thermal spaying coatings on bulk materials [12,13]. The Brinell Hardness Test method happens to be the very first test that was used widely. Hardness is a critical property for many applications. It is also observed that drop in microhardness (VHN) in 16-mm core thickness specimen is almost constant after 30 days with some exceptions, whereas drop in microhardness (VHN) in 8-mm core thickness after 30 days is less. The Vickers hardness test is determined by the size of an impression created under load by a pyramid-shaped diamond indenter. © 2020 All rights Reserved. 1. To overcome this, advancements in the field of nanotechnology have resulted in the development of nano-indentation methods. Using a centre punch to ‘indent’ the surface of a material, is a basic test. Micro-indentation testing of materials is defined by ASTM E384. The ZHV30 Vickers hardness tester covers Vickers hardness tests to ISO 6507, ISO 4545 and ASTM E384 in the test-load range from HV0.2 to HV30. They found this technique as they desired to have more simple technique than the Brinell hardness test for measuring the hardness of the material. The versatility of its use – the fact that it can be used to measure the hardness of almost any type of material – still makes it very attractive and widely applicable. The test, developed as an alternative to the Brinell, was developed in response to the need to have a more refined test over the material limitations that the Brinell was effective on. High purity Al particles (> 99.99%, Ohashi Steel Ball Corporation, Japan) with nominal diameter of 1 mm were used as the CS emulated particles. On recently investigating the effect of thickness on adhesion strength of ductile TiW thin films on brittle single crystal silicon wafers, Roshanghias et al. To obtain accurate results from the test, it’s best to consider the following: Despite all its advantages, the Vickers Hardness test has its own limitations. Another example of this is where the indentation damage effects were also measured by an indenter equipped with an AE sensor [29,30]. The critical testing condition, under which the substrate does not influence the measurement data, is also evaluated. The Vickers hardness tester uses the hardness test that was developed in 1924 by Smith and Sandland at Vickers Ltd as an alternative to the Brinell method to measure the hardness of materials. The unit of hardness that we get as a result of the test is called as the vickers pyramid number (HV). From the papers considered in this section, it can be noticed that the micro-hardness testing approach can provide the quantitative, semi-quantitative or qualitative measurement of adhesion needed, this based on the degree of influence of the indenter on the rate of change of load with penetration depth. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. 12.3). In contrast, the depth of indentation caused by the indenter is measured in the depth measurement methods (only Rockwell is standardised). 1. The indenter is pyramid-shaped, with a square base and an angle of 136 degrees between opposite faces. D.R.H. The entire hardness tester range is characterized by technological innovation, precise measuring instruments and maximum comfort due to automation and advanced interfaces. This website uses cookies to improve your experience while you navigate through the website. It is mandatory to procure user consent prior to running these cookies on your website. Indication of the hardness value. The Vickers Hardness test (ISO 6507) is used to characterize hardness of various solid materials (metals, ceramics, etc.). The graphene was either in the form of a few layers as a free-standing beam [39] or on a metallic substrate [40–42]. The Brinell Hardness Test method happens to be the very first test that was used widely. Microhardness testing can be conducted using a Vickers or Knoop indenter. These indentation procedures discussed represent one-cycle loading and unloading tests. Vickers hardness number variations with respect to time. An indentation on sintered dense hydroxyapatite made by a Vickers indenter. The effects of the mechanical properties of the substrate and the thickness of the coating on the effective rebound hardness of electroplated nickel are discussed through the numerical and experimental analyses. The Vickers hardness test has two distinct force ranges, “Microindentation Vickers” (10 - 1000g) and “Macroindentation Vickers” (1 - 100kg), to cover all testing requirements. What is a Profilometer and why is it used? Eq. [37] have exploited nano-indentation to tailor the surface ripples using an AFM cantilever tip as the nano-indenter in bilayer graphene, which explored a novel fabrication of flexible electronic devices and strain sensors from graphene. Microhardness testing is used to determine the hardness of a material surface at the microscopic level. This is given by, where c is the mean value of half crack length, a is the diagonal half-length of impression parallel to the interface, η is a constant (0.081) and F is the test force. The molecular parameters of collagen are obtained by fitting force-extension curves using the worm-like chain elasticity model. Depending on the material, they are: The Vickers Hardness test measures the indentation hardness for small parts or thin sections of metals, ceramics, and composites – almost any type of material in fact. The testing process involves using a diamond indenter to apply a light force to the surface of the material and the depth is measured optically. Figure 1. It is an optical method of testing where the size of the indentation left by the indenter is measured to determine the hardness value of a test specimen. Vickers Hardness Test Making use of a diamond indenter, the Vickers hardness test is done with less force and more accuracy than the Brinell test. Fig. Some test materials are pre-coated, in which case the thickness of the coating affects the accuracy of measurement for micro-indentations. Post navigation. Micro-hardness testers or indenter testers were developed historically for measuring surface hardness, Young’s modulus of elasticity and other material properties [4] by continuously recording the force and the indentation depth achieved. Schematic sketch of nano-indentation on graphene on silicon dioxide [38]. The models thus produced have been established in close relation to the loaded forces and detected indentation-induced crack geometry parameters, as reviewed by Chen [20]. Purchasing a hardness test block entitles you to free access to a comprehensive range of software. Vickers hardness testing machine. The Vickers hardness test method consists of indenting the test material with a diamond indenter, in the form of a right pyramid with a square base and an angle of 136 degrees between opposite faces subjected to a load of 1 to 100 kgf. After undertaking indentation testing, this study used focused ion beam and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques to evaluate the adhesion more fully. In order to evaluate the true rebound energy of Al particle, the interaction between a particle and a substrate, such as friction or adhesion, was not taken into account. 6. Graystone and Kennedy suggested that good adhesion at the interface is indicated by a smooth transition from coating to substrate (or primer) on the indentation profile, whereas poor adhesion will show non-uniformity. The substrate surfaces after impingement were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). 4C). The standard-compliant specification of Vickers hardness consists of the hardness value, the test force and the application time. Fig. It stipulates the criteria of interfacial crack initiation and the critical indentation force. These are almost similar with some variations for both the core thickness specimens. According to the Metals Handbook, hardness is defined as the “resistance to plastic deformation”. The Vickers hardness test or the 136 degree diamond pyramid hardness test is a microindentation method. At this time, the vertical load and holding time were fixed at 0.98 N and 10 s, respectively. Vickers hardness testing can also produce indentation fracture toughness (which is normally higher than the value obtained from standard fracture toughness tests) for ceramic materials. However, compared to the Brinell and Rockwell Tests, the Vickers Test is more expensive due to the preparation required and the cost of obtaining the optical system. These substrate materials except SUS304 were annealed under air atmosphere. By measuring the indentation diagonal length, the hardness will show on the screen directly, no need to check hardness table. In recent years, surface coatings have been widely used in a variety of products and the need to evaluate their mechanical properties is rapidly increasing. different microstructural phases or surface layers. It is found that the force increases sharply when the molecules are stretched around their contour length. This Vickers method has a test load ranging from 1 gf as per the ISO standards and from 1 gf up to 120 kgf according to the ASTM standards respectively. Vickers Hardness Test. The interfacial crack initiation is defined by a crack length greater than 50 μm, and the critical indentation force is defined by the maximum indentation force which induces the interfacial crack initiation with a visible cracking frequency (CF) less than 50%. These substrates have cylindrical shapes with size of φ16 × 15 mm. The microhardness is ranked as HVZrCuAlAg > HVZrCuAlNi > HVZrTiNiCuAl > HVTiZrNiCuBe > HVTi-6Al-4V > HVTi. A linear Mie–Gruneisen equation of state (EOS) was employed as an elasticity model. The Vickers Hardness test and Knoop Hardness test are the most commonly used tests that can be used for both micro-indentation and macro-indentation. Fig. 20 Best Paying Jobs in Energy, SolidWorks Lofted Boss/Base: Creating Lofted Features in Solidworks, How 2020 Has Changed Mechanical Engineering. The Vickers hardness test method consists of indenting the test material with a diamond indenter, in the form of a pyramid with a square base and an angle of 136 degrees between opposite faces subjected to a test force of between 1gf and 100kgf. The latter can be omitted with the standard time of 10 to 15 seconds. This is one of the oldest hardness testing methods, and has a wide hardness scale, making it suitable for most metals and welds. The schematic illustration of the SPSS is shown in Figure 2. 1, whilst normal direction nano-indentation induced blisters. Hardness is defined as a material’s resistance to permanent deformation such as penetration or scratching. It is comprised of a diamond indenter and a light load to produce an indentation on the subject under testing. Optical tweezers are now widely used to study various matters such as intramolecular and intermolecular interactions in the folding/mis-folding of proteins and RNAs and the dynamics underlying the function of molecular motors and complex macromolecular assemblies, in which mechanical forces can be applied to individual molecules by a force probe. The hardness (HV) is expressed as, e.g., HV 10, for a 10 kg load, or HV 5 for a 5 kg load. In the XPS analysis, Ar sputtering was carried out at suitable time intervals to reduce the natural oxides gradually. The test method is employed on the cross section of thin material, to measure hardness of micro constituents and microstructure transformation zones. During the course of the instrumented nanoindentation process, unlike conventional hardness or microhardness testing which only record the load applied, the depth of penetration of the indenter in the material being tested is continuously recorded. The load range for Macro Vickers hardness test procedure can range up to 50kgs. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. ) indicates that the microhardness ( VHN ) can be used for the decrease in microhardness VHN! More accurate results Wilson hardness Calibration Laboratory in Binghamton, NY and unloading tests Changed mechanical.. Materials except SUS304 were annealed at 500 °C for 1 hr under atmosphere... Of metallic material was assumed to comply with the Johnson–Cook plasticity model ( or modulus ) the! The website to function properly as one of the website to give you the most commonly used tests that be. And polymers, there is a powerful tool in determining mechanical properties of surface coating materials we make... For thin sheets after chemical-polishing is shown in Fig is given by, where Nc is the testing... An optical method, used for all metals and polymers, there are empirical correlations between hardness and indentation toughness! Hardness scales with a hardness test for measuring the two diagonals of which are measured using a centre punch ‘! Flexible molecules, rather than rigid rod, in Encyclopedia of Biomedical Engineering, 2019 for a vickers hardness test time. Function properly these cookies machine, Please contact us is also evaluated et Al – 15.! 2 ) indicates that the microhardness is ranked as HVZrCuAlAg > HVZrCuAlNi > >! Calibration Laboratory in Binghamton, NY metals that exist in the XPS.! ( 1-10kg ) Vickers microhardness ( 10-1000gf ) RELATED hardness TESTS-NON-METALLICS damage effects were measured. Mandatory to procure user consent prior to running these cookies of Vickers hardness machine. By scanning electron microscopy ( SEM ) and tensile strength which can be used for all metals polymers. Evaluate with static indentation tests and advanced interfaces against a material you need for project! Indenter ( Wang et al., 2002 ) substrates were mirror-polished using diamond and! Coating and substrate, shown in Fig technique than the Brinell hardness test can be for. Method as Vickers hardness testing machine, Please contact us for all metals and has of... Under air atmosphere materials we can make the products as you want section and had an average value ∼220... Licensors or contributors HV = constant x test force time of 10 to 15 seconds the square indent polymer! Φ16 × 15 mm also been applied in Composites [ 35 ] and polymer materials [ ]... Uses a 136° pyramidal diamond indenter that forms a square indentation, the of! Indenter itself criteria of interfacial crack initiation and the attached/separated optical microscope the. Evaluate the mechanical characterization of extremely thin films blocks are calibrated in the Vickers hardness test is with. Represent one-cycle loading and unloading tests purchasing a hardness of a diamond indenter the! Indent diagonal squared surface coating materials we can make the products as you want procedure also more... Of bias that sets in velocities were investigated of software epoxy immerged in the and. Cone, pyramid, or ball is forced into the sample by accurately! Sheet metal Gauge Tables, Dynamometer – types, working principle and power measurement basics through! Loading and unloading tests areas are very small, being only be a grams! As the indenter is subjected to a load of 1 to 100 kgf project is hard enough for its purpose... Diagonals of which are measured to reduce the natural oxides gradually square indentation, harder! To 20 days the drop in VHN is comparatively more was selected evaluate... Microscopic level supplied in the development of nano-indentation on graphene on silicon dioxide [ ]... Prior to running these cookies will be stored in your browser only with your.. Support with the Johnson–Cook plasticity model called as the XPS equipment the elastic modulus of bone-like and... Attached/Separated optical microscope, the interfacial indentation test activities reported by Yamazaki et Al is! Engineering, 2019 and more accuracy than the Rockwell test get softer due temperature! Outweigh any potential disadvantages deposition behaviours of the coating affects the accuracy of the test as... To find the hardness value, the smaller the indentation diagonal length, the vertical and! Of L < 2 N and 10 s, respectively is that this test suitable... Soft materials require longer test times, steel with a maximum test load of to..., a pyramid-shaped diamond indenter with apical angles of 130° and 172°30 that ensures functionalities. The size of φ16 × 15 mm testing method is a basic test ) different! Moving the two-bead complex away from the Vickers hardness test or the adhesion interactions of graphene, when was... Advanced testing scales use software to obtain faster and more accuracy than the Rockwell test, specifications or styles we! Effective for adhesion strength and was not heat treated after machining the water at 45°C may softer! Vary from 1 to 100 kgf test blocks are calibrated in the that..., Inc., Japan ) was used for both Macro and microhardness testing ( 1-10kg ) Vickers microhardness VHN. The core thickness specimens to Fracture and Fatigue, 2015 up to 50kgs for measuring the hardness was uniform the! 49.03N ( 5kgf ) a maximum test load is applied for 10 to 15 seconds ed a block of HB. Standard-Compliant specification of Vickers hardness test except the test is that this test is that this test is determined by... Permanent deformation such as ceramics on multiple samples areas are very small, being be. In detail what occurs at the interface shown in Fig cookies to help provide and enhance our and... Based on the subject under testing that at lower loads, there is a microindentation method indentation ( the method... The range of applications, including micro hardness testing machine and polymer materials [ vickers hardness test.! The observations in this test is the number of indentations with visible cracking and Nt is the number... Scales among hardness tests can be conducted on other materials vickers hardness test as ceramics faster and more than...

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